The OSCE (Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe) has compared R&D spending between countries as a percentage of GDP. The first and second place clearly outperform the remaining countries. Israel spends 4.9 percent of GDP on research, South Korea 4.6 percent. The best ranked country is Sweden. It is in third place with 3.4 percent. This means that Sweden spends 1.5 percent less on research than Israel, which comes first. A significant difference.
Austria follows in fourth place with 3.2 percent, followed closely by Japan and Germany. In the US it is 3.1 percent. In Europe, Slovakia invests particularly little in science, where it is just one percent of GDP. Globally, Colombia and Mexico bring up the rear with 0.3 percent.